Rare Ophthalmology News

Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Bright's disease


Kidney and Urinary Diseases


Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease in which there is inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny filters that remove excess waste and fluids from the blood.[1][2] It may be acute or chronic (coming on gradually), and may occur on its own (primary) or be caused by another condition (secondary).[1] Signs and symptoms may depend on the type and cause of the condition and may include blood in the urine; foamy urine; swelling of the face, eyes, or other body parts; abdominal pain; high blood pressure; fatigue; and/or other symptoms.[1][2] If the condition is severe or prolonged, the kidneys can become damaged.[1] It may be caused by a variety of infections and diseases, and sometimes the cause is unknown. Treatment depends on the cause, type and severity of the condition.[2]


A variety of conditions can cause glomerulonephritis (GN), ranging from infections that affect the kidneys to diseases that affect the whole body, including the kidneys. Sometimes the cause is unknown.[1]

Acute GN (a sudden attack of inflammation) may be caused by infections such as strep throat, impetigo, or bacterial endocarditis. Other infections that may cause GN include HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.[1][3] GN may also be caused by immune diseases such as lupus, Goodpasture's syndrome, and IgA nephropathy. Types of vasculitis that may cause the condition include Wegener's granulomatosis and polyarteritis nodosa.[1][3] Chronic GN sometimes develops after an episode acute glomerulonephritis.[1]

In some cases, GN is caused by an inherited condition. One of these is Alport syndrome (also known as hereditary nephritis).[1][3] Individuals with Alport syndrome may also have hearing and/or vision loss.[3] Alport syndrome can have different inheritance patterns depending on the disease-causing gene involved.

To view more information on our Web site about possible genetic causes and/or inheritance of GN, click here.


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Glomerulonephritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


        1. Glomerulonephritis. Mayo Clinic. April 2, 2011; https://www.mayoclinic.com/health/glomerulonephritis/DS00503. Accessed 7/17/2012.
        2. Glomerulonephritis. PubMed Health. September 20, 2011; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001515/. Accessed 7/17/2012.
        3. Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation. 2012; https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul.cfm. Accessed 7/17/2012.
        4. Patrick Niaudet. Overview of the pathogenesis and causes of glomerulonephritis in children. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; 2012;
        5. R Krishna Chaganti. Complement Deficiencies. Medscape Reference. July 9, 2009; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/135478-overview#a0104. Accessed 7/18/2012.
        6. Cassandra L. Kniffin. CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE, DOMINANT INTERMEDIATE E; CMTDIE. OMIM. January 30, 2012; https://omim.org/entry/614455. Accessed 7/18/2012.

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