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Disease Profile

Temporomandibular ankylosis

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ); TMJ Ankylosis


Connective tissue diseases


Temporomandibular ankylosis is a condition that occurs when the temporomandibular joint (the joint that connects the jaw to the side of the head) becomes fused by bony or fibrous tissue. As a result, affected people may experience pain, speech impairment, and difficulty chewing and swallowing. It can interfere with nutrition, oral hygiene and the normal growth of the face and/or jaw. Although the condition can be diagnosed in people of all ages, it generally occurs during the first and second decades of life. Temporomandibular ankylosis is most commonly caused by trauma or infection; it may also be associated with certain conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. The condition is typically treated surgically.[1][2]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The Merck Manual provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.

In-Depth Information

  • The Merck Manual for health care professionals provides information on Temporomandibular ankylosis.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Temporomandibular ankylosis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


  1. De Roo N, Van Doorne L, Troch A, Vermeersch H, Brusselaers N, De Roo N, Van Doorne L, Troch A, Vermeersch H, Brusselaers N. Quantifying the outcome of surgical treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. Jan 2016; 44(1):6-15.
  2. Movahed R, Mercuri LG. Management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. February 2015; 27(1):27-35.